Abortion, Incomplete 
Abortion in which not all the products of conception have been expelled.

Abortion, Induced 
Abortion brought on intentionally.

Abortion, Legal 
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (Popline Thesaurus,1991)

Adnexa Uteri 
Appendages of the uterus: the fallopian tubes, ovaries and supporting ligaments of the uterus.

Looking at the cause and nature of a disease or illness.

Abscence of menses for three months or more.

Suspension or cessation of ovulation.

Chemical substances produced by micro-organisms, that have the capacity, in dilute solutions, to inhibit the growth of or to kill other organisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases of man, animals and plants. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Antibiotic Prophylaxis 
Use of antibiotics before, during or after a diagnostic, therapeutic or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.

Middle portion of a woman's fallopian tube and in men the upper end of the vas deferens tube where sperm is stored.

Barrier methods 
Condoms and diaphragms/pessaries.

Body Mass Index 
One of the anthropometric measures of body mass; the highest correlation with skinfold thickness or body density.

Bottom part of the uterus situated at the top of the vagina which opens up to allow the birth of a baby.

Sexual intercourse.

Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the female pelvic viscera by means of an endoscope introduced into the pelvic cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix.

Third generation progestin belonging to the distinct class of gonane progestins like norgestrel, levenorgestrel, gestodene and norgestimate.

see Pessaries.

Dilatation and Curettage 
Dilatation of the cervix uteri followed by a scraping of the endometrium with a curette.

Ectopic Pregnancy 
Development of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Emergency Contraception 
Contraceptive methods to be used after coitus.

Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on interior parts of the body.

Ethynodiol Diacetate 
First generation progestin that belongs to the distinct class of astranes that convert to the biologically active component norethindrone. Other progestins of this type include norethindrone, norethindrone acetate and lynestrenol.

Ethinyl Estradiol 
Semisynthetic estrogen with high oral estrogenic potency. Often used as the estrogenic component in oral contraceptives.

Expulsion IUD 
Spontaneous loss of IUD from the uterus.

Fallopian Tubes 
Two long muscular tubes that transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus. They extend from the horn of the uterus to the ovaries and consist of an ampulla, an infundibulum, an isthmus, two ostia and a pars uterina. The walls of the tubes are composed of three layers: mucosal, muscular and serosal.

Family Planning 
Programs or services designed to assist the family in controlling reproduction by either improving or diminishing fertility. 

Female Condoms
Soft loose fitting poly-urethane sheath, closed at one end with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by 
compresing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia.(Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)

Follicle Stimulating Hormone 
Hormone (glycoprotein) produced and released from the pituitary gland. In women it stimulates division of granulosa cells inside the follicle, which produces oestrodiol. In men it stimulates the quality (motility) of sperm.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone.

A third generation progestin belonging to the distinct class of gonane progestins like norgestrel, levenorgestrel, desogestrel and norgestimate.

A significant loss of blood that if severe enough may require a blood transfusion.

A complication, problem or adverse reaction as a result of medical treatment.

Intrauterine Device
Contraceptive device placed high in the uterine fundus with a string extending from the device through the cervical as into the vagina. (UMDNS, 1999)

Intrauterine Device, Copper 
IUD with metallic copper.

Intrauterine Device, Medicated
IUD that releases contraceptive agents.

Intrauterine System
Medicated or hormone-releasing intrauterine device.

Intrauterine Device.

Intrauterine System.

Injectable Contraception
Long-acting injectable progestational contraceptive. Originally, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. (DMPA)

Lactational Amenorrhea Method
Method of family planning that provides more than 98% protection from pregnancy in the first 6 months if a mother fully or nearly fully breastfeeds and remains amenorrheic.

Lactational Amenorrhea Method.

Surgical incision made into the wall of the abdomen.

Tube with a light attached to it which is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen so the outside surface of the uterus and other parts of a woman's reproductive system can be examined.

A second generation progestin that belongs to the distinct class of gonane progestins like norgestrel, desogestrel, gestodene, and norgestimate.

Luteinizing Hormone
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. In women it is responsible for inducing the ovulation process inside the follicle and thus producing progesterone. In men it stimulates the production of testosterone and is involved with the production of sperm cells.

A first generation progestin that belongs to the distinct class of estranes that convert to the biologically active component norethindrone. Other progestins of this type include norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate.

The start of menstrual periods in adolescence.

Permanent cessation of menstruation.

The methyl ether of ethinyl estradiol. Mestranol must be converted to the active estrogen, ethinyl estradiol. Data indicate that 30% is lost in the conversion, making 50 microgram mestranol pills bioequivalent to 35 microgram ethinyl estradiol. (Wallach and Grimes, Modern Oral Contraception, 2000)

The practice of assisting women in childbirth.

Progesterone and glucocorticoid antagonist with potential applications in terminating pregnancy, controlling menstruation and ovulation.

The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.

A distinct class of synthetic first generation progestins. Progestins of this type include norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, lynestrenol, and ethynodiol diacetate. These progestins are estranes and convert to the biologically active component norethindrone.

A second generation progestin that belongs to the distinct class of gonane progestins like levenorgestrel, desogestrel, gestodene, and norgestimate. Norgestrel is less potent than levenorgestrel.

Subdermal implant system releasing levenorgestrel.

Abnormally irregular, less frequent menstruation, associated with anovulation.

Oral Contraceptives
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to prevent ovulation and thus the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are primarily a progestogen, generally combined with an estrogen.

Oral Contraceptives, Combined
Fixed combination of progestogens and estrogens.

Oral Contraceptives, Sequential
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.

Oral Contraceptives, Low-dose 
Products containing less than 50 microgram ethinyl estradiol.

Oral Contraceptives, First Generation 
Products containing generally progestogens as lynesterenol or norethisteron, mostly combined with 50 microgram or more of ethinyl estradiol.

Oral Contraceptives, Second Generation 
Products containing progestogens as levenorgestrel, norgestimate, and other members of the norethindrone family, mostly combined with 30 or 35 microgram ethinyl estradiol.

Oral Contraceptives, Third Generation
Products containing progestogens as desogestrel or gestodene mostly combined with 30 microgram or less ethinyl estradiol.

Pearl Index
Number of failures per 100 women-years of exposure. The denominator is the total months or cycles of exposure from the onset of a method until completion of the study, an unintended pregnancy, or discontinuation of the method. The quotient is multiplied by 1200 if the denominator consists of months or by 1300 if the denominator consists of cycles.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes.

Instrument placed in the vagina to support the uterus or rectum or to serve as a contraceptive device. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Pelvic inflammatory disease or salpingitis.

Pills, injections or treatments missing the active component of interest, administered to experimental control groups to correct for nonspecific effects.

Pregnancy in Adolescence 
Pregnancy in women under 19.

Pregnancy Rate 
Ratio of the number of conceptions that occur during a period to the mean number of women of reproductive age. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)

See progesterone-IUD

Membrane enclosed reservoir inserted in uterus containing progesterone; once-a-year contraceptive.

Inflammation of the fallopian tubes.

Infection that has spread throughout the body.

Serum screening 
The systematic testing of blood to check for exposure to disease or the presence of a disorder that can be detected in the blood.

Spermatocides / Spermicides
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.

The vaginal contraceptive sponge is a sustained-release system for a spermicide. The sponge also absorbs semen and blocks the entrance to the cervical canal.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

Subdermal implants
Long-acting, low-dose, reversible progestin-only method of contraception for women, consisting of implantable, subdermal capsules.

Synthetic Progestational Hormones
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that possess progestational activity, but differ in structure from naturally occurring progestational hormones.

Tubal Patency
The fallopian tubes are intact and unblocked, thus capable of transporting an ovum from the fimbriae to the ampulla, sperm from the uterus to the ampulla and a fertilised ovum to the uterus.

Tubal Sterilization 
Surgical interruption of the fallopian tube.

Uterine Cavity 
The pelvic space where the uterus is situated.

Uterine Perforation 
Penetration through the uterine wall caused by trauma, surgery or a weak spot.

Vas Deferens 
A thick-walled tube going from a man's testis into the ejaculatory duct. This tube carries the sperm from the epididymis (where sperm is stored and nurtured), to the penis.

Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)